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Figure 2 shows a set of interacting forces.  Some tend toward the center.  These are the integrative forces;the forces of survival.  They are the manifestation of the unity of will.  Those that tend toward the periphery manifest the expression of Will.  Everything is pressing out to being itself to the full.  This “pressing out,” this “expression” in a company, gives process; the unity, the being itself, is the structure.  From the balanced, harmonious dynamism of these forces comes growth.  The tendency toward disintegration by explosion that arises from the centrifugal forces is balanced by a tendency toward destruction by implosion arising from the centripetal forces.  As we shall see later, the exploding tendency is counteracted by the product; the imploding tendency is counteracted y the organizational structure. 

In order to give our study a wider meaning, we shall be relating some of our findings to the word of several authors.  If what we say about an organization just happens to be an accidental view, a view without counterpart elsewhere, then it may have a certain pragmatic value and that would be all.  If, however, it can be shown to have a more universal value, if it can be shown to have correspondence in other fields, then further research in those fields can give a greater understanding of organization.  One of the sad parts about most theories of organization is that they are so parochial.

One of the authors whose work has considerable bearing on our present study is Arthur Koestler.  Koestler coined the word “holon” and our description of a company is the description of a holon.  A holon is “Janus-faced”; that is it has two faces, one inward and the other outward.  Furthermore, it has the characteristics of being both a part and a whole.  A company is a holon in that in its integrative, “centering” tendency, it is a whole; in its expansive, assertive aspect it is a part of a wider whole, i.e., society, within which its assertion is felt.  From this notion of a holon we shall later develop the notion of dilemma and show that the role of a manger is not simply that of solving problems, but also of resolving dilemmas.  We shall therefore be returning again to the holon and its characteristics.


As in most posts on, italicization of words refers to the words of either Jiddu Krishnamurti or Albert Low.  The website writer’s words are in regular text.

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